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環境倫理與職業安全衛生管理系統

篇名 環境倫理與職業安全衛生管理系統
英文篇名 Environmental Ethics and Occupational Health and Safety Management
作者 翁裕峰、尤素芬
刊名 政大勞動學報
期數 200912(26)
出版單位 國立政治大學勞工研究所
起訖頁 49-90
摘要

1960年代之後,由於全球快速工業化、生產技術變遷、大量化學性物質成為工業化生產原料,以及大量消費的生活模式的出現,環境倫理成為受到關注的重要議題。聯合國在1990 年代開始正視企業環境管理的規範議題, 並與國際標準化組織( International Organization for Standardization, ISO)聯手推動環境管理標準的觀念,自此企業社會責任(corporate social responsibility)正式進入管理階段。隨後發展出來的安全衛生管理標準,包括ISO 14000 OHSAS 18000 等,也被視為企業社會責任的一種表現。

但是,透過實施國際性的相關環境∕安衛管理標準,是否就能達到企業環境倫理?如果從環境倫理的行為準則來看,需要強化的重點何在?本文嘗試以環境倫理學家Rolston (1988) 對「商業倫理規範」之人本主義觀點的論述出發,檢視環境倫理與安全衛生的關係,申論企業應有的作為與實踐上面臨的挑戰,並試圖指出克服挑戰的可能性所在。

本文指出,隨著自主安全衛生管理系統的擴張,勞工參與已被正式納入安衛管理系統的主要要求項目,相關工作包括參與建立危害辨識與風險評估指標等皆具有人本企業倫理特性,這有助於充實勞工對企業從事有害的生產過程進行監督與告發的能力。不過,如要達到Rolston 所強調的告發目的──實踐企業倫理,則需要對提出各式各樣安全衛生質疑的勞工,提供制度性與有效性的保護。同時,企業、安衛專家、科學家等也有義務提出研究證據釐清勞工的疑問,如此才有助於勞工成為企業外在有效的控制力量。

英文摘要

Since the 1960s, environmental ethics has become an increasingly important issue. It is related to industrialization, changing skills and production technology, industrial chemical use, and consumer culture. This encouraged the United Nation to take formative management of environment into account, and it began to promote standards of environmental/occupational health and safety (OHS) management through cooperation with the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in the 1990s. Corporate social responsibility (CSR), hence, entered management systems, including ISO 14000 and OHSAS 18000.

Can the aims of ethics in commerce be achieved by adopting standardized environmental or OHS management systems? Which maxims should be strengthened in humanistic environmental ethics? This research tries to open the issues related to Rolston’s (1988) “Ethic for Commerce” from a humanistic perspective. This article firstly explores the relationship between OHS and environmental ethics, then investigates the regulations as well as the challenges of implementing environmental ethics, and finally suggests the possible resolutions.

This paper stresses the importance of workers’ participation, which is included in the current OHS management system as one of the fundamental requirements. Significant channels include participation in identifying hazards and choosing indexes of risk assessment. This improves workers’ abilities to investigate the process of production and file reports with the government. In terms of carrying out business ethics, accusation against the employers is hardly made without providing institutive and effective protection for workers who raise OHS questions. The enterprises, OHS experts and scientists should be responsible for providing evidence that clarifies the questions raised by workers. This, therefore, will help workers to become capable to exercise external control more effectively.

關鍵詞 職業安全衛生管理系統、環境倫理、企業社會責任、ISO、自主管理、Occupational Health and Safety Management SystemEnvironmental EthicsCorporate Social ResponsibilityISOSelf-regulation