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工會集體行動策略分析:以中華電信工會為例

篇名 工會集體行動策略分析:以中華電信工會為例
英文篇名 Analysis of Collective Action Straegy of the Trade Union: A Case Study of Chunghwa Telecom Workers' Union
作者 張昌吉、劉政彥
刊名 政大勞動學報
期數 200901(24)
出版單位 國立政治大學勞工研究所
起訖頁 43-94
摘要

觀察過去的工會發展史,從一黨主政政府把持的政黨工會,至經濟發展時期的政經結合穩定勞資關係,工會只是國家統治的外圍團體,直至解嚴及政治民主運動興起,勞工意識獲得啟蒙,帶起一波工潮,工會自主性才逐漸展開。中華電信工會成立至今已逾五十年之久,不僅見證台灣工會的發展,更親身經歷其中,最終擺脫官方掌控,其在行動力與組織規模方面皆極具工會代表性,因此本研究首在透過中華電信工會豐富的工會行動經驗,來檢證台灣工會對於集體行動理論的適用性,探討工會運用解決困境的途徑。本研究發現,中華電信工會成員參與工會的動機是個人理性(individual rationality)與自利(self-interest)的選擇邏輯。工會的集會行動定會受到團體大小、成本與效益間的關係、選擇性誘因(selective incentives)及政治企業家(political entrepreneur)型工會領袖等變項影響,而超理性動機(extrarational motivations)與公共財等的供給變項卻不足以用來解釋工會成員之所以參加集體行動的動機。至於工會方面所面臨動員的困境,可藉由提供選擇性誘因、提升勞動意識及增加會員認同感等方式來解決,其中又以提鋒勞工意識及增加會員認同為最根本的解決之道。

英文摘要

From the observation on the development history, trade unions are initially founded with politic purpose during the period of dictatorship by Kuomintang. During the phase of economic development, Trade unions transferred as a tool for the country to stabilize labor relations. In the meantime, trade unions were only regarded as fringe groups and dominated by the country. Until democratic movements were thriving and martial law was ended, labor consciousness were germinated and labor strikes are ignited, and union autonomy was gradually expanded.

CTWU ( Chunghwa Telecom Workers’ Union) was founded for more than 50 years, She was not only witnessed the development of Taiwan unions but underwent the changes, and eventually got rid of the authority’s control. Either from the respects of agency or scopes of organization, CTWU possesses the representation of Taiwan unions. Therefore, this research firstly demonstrated if the interpretation of collective action is applied to Taiwan unions in accordance with plentiful experience which CTWU have, and probed into the solution for trade unions to conquer dilemma.

From this research, it was found that CTWU members’ motivation of partaking in union activities are the selection logic between individual rationality and self-interest. The union’s collective actions will be influenced by the variables in size of organizations, relations between costs and revenue, selective incentives and union leaders with the form of political entrepreneur. However, the variables of extrarational motivations and supplies of public properties are not significant enough to motivate union member joining collective actions. As regards the plight of mobilization faced by unions, it can be solved by the methods of offering selective incentives, raising labor consciousness and increasing member engagement et cetera. Above all, the most fundamental solution is to raise labor consciousness and increase member engagement.

關鍵詞 集體行動策略、工會行動策略、工會行動邏輯、Collective Action StrategyUnion Action StrategyLogic of Union Action