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經濟不景氣與日本企業之人員調整措施──以終身雇用制為例

篇名 經濟不景氣與日本企業之人員調整措施──以終身雇用制為例
作者 林顯宗
刊名 政大勞動學報
期數 200801(23)
出版單位 國立政治大學勞工研究所
起訖頁 145-179
摘要

日本企業雇用形態,其內涵由終身雇用制、年功薪資制以及企業別工會等三個因素所構成,而這三項因素,又以終身雇用制最具獨特性。終身雇用制並非基於法律的規定,而是基於日本社會、文化,以及歷史源流的脈絡下,所形成的經營慣例,深具特色。因此,此制度常被用以區別日本與歐美企業經營形態的重要因素,深受國際矚目。終身雇用制之最大特色,在於雇主強調永續雇用原理,不輕易解聘員工,而員工也預期終其一生在同一家企業服務,企業並提供員工企業內教育訓練,以及優渥的福利,如此,使員工滋生歸屬感以及忠誠心。然而,在企業不景氣時,企業終歸要裁減人員,此際日本企業所採取之措施,採取「多元方式,因應景氣,逐步調整」之措施,具有其特殊性。

英文摘要

The ways of employment in Japanese corporations consist of lifetime commitment, payments by seniority and enterprise labor union. Above all, life commitment is the most unique one.It follows the conventional way of Japanese society, culture, history and it does not base on the labor law of Japan. Hence, the life commitment has its own features and is usually used to distinguish the main differences of business cultures between Japan and Western countries.

The main feature of the lifetime commitment is that the employers will usually employed staff for life and they will not dismiss staff easily if there is no uncertainty.Moreover, staff will also expect to work at their corporation for lifetime. Corporation will provide relevant and applicable job training to staff.It will also provide appropriate welfare so that life commitment could also create a sense of belonging and loyalty by staff.However, during recession, corporation might also need to reduce manpower by retrenchment.In this case, Japanese corporation will adopt various ways to cope with the recession and handle the problem gradually.Therefore, life commitment culture is still has its uniqueness in Japanese corporations.

關鍵詞 日本企業、雇用形態、終身雇用制、Japanese CorporationsLifetime Commitmentways of employment