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台灣有機農業生產與勞動過程之初探

篇名 台灣有機農業生產與勞動過程之初探
作者 馬財專、傅晴華
刊名 政大勞動學報
期數 200801(23)
出版單位 國立政治大學勞工研究所
起訖頁 57-112
摘要

有機農業勞動者代表的是一種新興農業型態的工作者,到底有機農業勞動者的勞動樣貌為何?本文訪談對象涵蓋24位分別隸屬於財團法人國際美育自然生態基金會、財團法人慈心有機農業發展基金會與台灣省有機農業生產協會的有機農業勞動者,透過深入訪談方式瞭解他們對於自身勞動的看法與想像。將研究分為三個層次:勞動者、驗證單位與外在環境,再從三個層次分別與個別勞動者的勞動過程進行串聯,從結構因素與實際勞動交互影響下揭開有機農業勞動者的勞動樣貌。 研究發現,有機農業的象徵形象限制了對其勞動型態的發展。然而隨著驗證機制的出現,適時的解決了有機農業形象過度虛擬的缺陷,然卻相對強化了結構環境所給予的限制。有機農業勞動者在結構因素限制下發展出取代農藥化肥的應用,當有機農業無法維持高收入的經濟效益時,勞動者必須藉由經濟層面的妥協以及心靈層面的調適來突破進退維谷的現象,並維繫持續的勞動參與。最終,有機農業結構環境與有機農業勞動者具體實踐形成交融現象。本文作為初探性研究,可協助傳達勞動背後更複雜意涵的訊息,期望針對這群綠色勞動者的考察,能填補勞動社會學在此部分的論述。

英文摘要

Organic agricultural farmers represent a kind of new model of farmers. What characteristics of organic farmers are? Interviews are composed of twenty-four organic farmers in Taiwan. Through in-depth interviews, we try to figure out their characteristics and labor process. This paper focuses on the relations between structure and actors, and the interaction between structural factors and labor practice.

This paper demonstrates organic agriculture is a symbol of health and safety, environmental protection, expertise, economic ethics and labor dignity.It thus promotes organic farmers’ motivation in investment, crop selection but limits their production manner. At the right time, the Certification System solves the problem of undistinguishing drawbacks of organic products.It also enforces structural limits on organic agriculture.When organic farming can not maintain high economic benefits, it keeps and prolongs farmers' participation through their economic compromise and spiritual adjustment.As a preliminary research, this paper sheds light and insight to further researches on organic agriculture and in the large extent on the studies of green labor in the area of labor sociology.

關鍵詞 有機農業、有機農業勞動者、勞動實踐、綠色勞動、Green LaborLabor ProcessOrganic AgricultureOrganic Farmers