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發展型國家消逝下的勞動市場邏輯:台灣案例的檢視

篇名 發展型國家消逝下的勞動市場邏輯:台灣案例的檢視
作者 李耀泰
刊名 政大勞動學報
期數 200801(23)
出版單位 國立政治大學勞工研究所
起訖頁 1-55
摘要

許多學者對於台灣在一九九〇年代左右所創造的經濟奇蹟,提出了各種不同的解釋,其中以「發展型國家」(developmental state)的理論視角來詮釋台灣等東亞國家的經濟成長最受人重視。對於台灣而言,在一九九〇年代左右的確藉由國家主導和經濟介入而帶來了快速的經濟成長;然而在邁入了二十一世紀之後,卻因為政治民主化以及經濟全球化的影響而出現了大幅度的改變。在這些轉變之下,攸關我國勞工就業的「勞動市場結構」也隨著出現了變化。 本文試圖從一個「宏觀」(macro)的觀點來探討在目前發展型國家消逝的趨勢之下,我國的勞動市場是否呈現出和過去截然不同的結構性轉變,而這些轉變對於我國勞工的就業安全、勞動型態以及勞動條件等層面是否會產生影響?以及產生了何種影響或衝擊?本文進一步認為這些影響的來源除了整體政治、經濟大環境的改變之外,也和我國決策者在因應這些趨勢時所採取的政策及作為有關,例如產業政策的調整、開放我國企業對外投資、以及跨國勞力的引進等等,這些均直接或間接促成了勞動市場結構的改變。

英文摘要

Many scholars suggest many explanations about Taiwan’s economic miracles during 1990s. Among these explanations, the theoretical framework of “developmental state” was attached the most importance. For Taiwan, it is truly that the dominance and economic interference of state brought high-speed economic growth; however, when we are entering into the 21st century, it changed a lot because of the political democratization and economic globalization. Under these transformations, the labor market structure which concerns native labors also changed.

In this article, I would like to discuss the following issues from a macro viewpoint: under the trend of the disappearance of developmental state, whether the labor market in Taiwan amounts to a structural transformation? Whether these transformations have any influences on the employment security, labor styles and labor conditions of our native labor and what kind of influences? I also think that these influences comes not only from the change of political and economic environment, but also from the policies made by the governmental leaders under these trends, such as the adjustment of industrial policies, the release of block on business investment, and the import of foreign labors…etc. These policies changed the labor market structure directly and indirectly.

關鍵詞 發展型國家、勞動市場、產業政策、彈性化、跨國勞力、Developmental StateLabor MarketIndustrial PolicyFlexibleTransnational Labor