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我國外籍勞工引進與名額配置因素之探討:政策德菲法之應用

篇名 我國外籍勞工引進與名額配置因素之探討:政策德菲法之應用
英文篇名 The Research of Factors of Foreign Labor Importation and Its Quota Determination: the Application of the Policy Delphi Method
作者 劉宜君、辛炳隆
刊名 政大勞動學報
期數 200901(24)
出版單位 國立政治大學勞工研究所
起訖頁 133-177
摘要

本研究鑑於現階段政府的外勞引進政策不論在總額決定因素或是名額分配上仍有明確化空間,故以分析過去我國引進外勞的原則與做法,參考他國經驗,並透過德菲法的調查,提出建構我國總額決定與分配因素之建議。

研究發現多數德菲法專家認為外勞總額決定應參考因素,依其重要性高低分別為「缺工率」、「經濟成長率」、「一般失業率」、「勞動參與率」、「物價上漲率」、「原住民失業率」。在名額分配方面,多數德菲專家認為除了整理總額之外。對於各行業可以引進的外籍勞工人數,也應訂定總額上限,而在訂定時,應以「該行業的缺工率」、「該行業的產業關聯效果」為最主要考量因素。

研究建議為:(1)建議政府為回應工商團體與部分專家學者認為在單一總額下,外籍看護工人數增加嚴重排擠產業外勞的引進名額之意見,可以在決定總額時,將產業外勞與社福外勞總額分立,以避免產業外勞的名額受到擠壓。(2)建議政府根據本研究提出的「缺工率」、「經濟成長率」、「一般失業率」、「勞動參與率」、「物價上漲率」與「原住民失業率」等多元面向的指標之相對權重,亦即增加與外勞替代性較高之本國基層勞工之失業率雨實質工資成長率等其他較客觀的指標,設算每年可以引進之外勞總額。(3)建議在整體總額架構下,政府開放特定行業申請聘僱外勞的考慮因素時,根據行業的「缺工率」與「產業關聯效果」、「該行業的關廠歇業家數」、「該行業的職業災害發生率」,訂定各行業外勞總額上限,亦可以減少母前外勞總額得釐訂過度偏重缺工率,增加其他客觀指標作為參考依據。最後,建議強化外勞政策諮詢小組功能,並舉辦工作坊,邀請外國有實務經驗之專家來台指導小組委員如何就外勞議題進行協商。

英文摘要

Despite the numerous domestic literatures conducted on the impact of foreign labor importation on the domestic employment market and industry development, inconsistent results were observed due to the diverse empirical models, sources and periods of information, and the sampling combinations utilized in each study. As a result, it is difficult to determine based on the previous studies whether the importation of foreign labors imposes a positive or negative overall influence.

The key research topics of this study include: (1) re-evaluate the impact of the former foreign labor importation policy on the domestic employment market and industry development; (2) launch an effective mechanism to control and manage the total quantity and the allocation of foreign workers; (3) evaluate the potentiality of introducing foreign labors into the service industry; (4) re-evaluate the current professional qualification restriction for foreign talents working in Taiwan and determine the likelihood of loosening the constrains. The result of the Delphi survey conducted in our research demonstrated that the majority of the experts believed that the factors determining the total quantity of foreign labors are, in the order of their importance, “labor shortage ratio”, “economic growth rate”, “unemployment ratio’, “labor-force participation ratio”, “inflation rate” and “unemployment ratio for the indigenous people.” Based on the results derived above, the following policy suggestions were proposed: (1) Establish separate total quantities for industrial and social welfare foreign labors to avoid repressing the quota for the industrial foreign labors. (2) Calculate the rate of change for the total quantity of industrial foreign labor population by multiplying the “rate of change for economic growth rate”, “rate of change for unemployment rate”, “rate of change for labor-force participation rate”, “rate of change for inflation rate”, and “rate of change for unemployment rate for the indigenous” with its corresponding relative weight. (3) According to the "labor shortage rate" and "industry-related effects," the government sets the upper limit of the total industry workers.

關鍵詞 外籍基層人力、外勞政策、再就業率、評估研究、政策德菲法、Foreign LaborForeign Labor PolicyReemployment RatioEvaluation ResearchPolicy Delphi Method