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晶圆厂劳动过程之探讨:以时间秩序为分析角度

篇名 晶圆厂劳动过程之探讨:以时间秩序为分析角度
英文篇名 The Investigation of the Temporal Order of the Labor Process in Semiconductor Fabs
作者 林宗德
刊名 政大劳动学报
期数 201212(28)
出版单位 国立政治大学劳工研究所
起讫页 45-86
摘要

当前半导体制造业的特色是研究与生产合一,以因应半导体制成的复杂性与快速的技术变迁。半导体业的技术变迁可用所谓的「摩尔定律」来说明:在每一到两年内,在积体电路芯片尚可容纳的电晶体数量将会倍增。然而实验室与工厂的合一,使得同时肩负研究与生产功能的设备,其运转时间的分配成为重要问题,形塑了半导体晶圆厂中工作的时间特性。本文分析半导体晶圆厂为求同时满足研究与生产的需求,造就的两类雇员——技术员和工程师之工作的时间秩序。透过分工,技术员不需解决生产过程中发生的问题,工作的特征是一系列可预测次序而持续时间短暂的事件,呈现的是「单序」之形态。相较之下,由于半导体的制程复杂性,工程师面对不定时出现的问题,必须同时处理各种解决所需时间不一的事件,其工作为「多序」的形态。而由于设备运转时间由制造部门垄断,解决问题和制程研究所需的实验常无法顺利取得该时间,使得工程师多序工作的形态更为巩固。晶圆厂内因技术特性而构筑的时间分配体制,造就了工程师长工时的工作形态。

英文摘要

Contemporary semiconductor manufacturing is characterized by the erasure of the boundary between research and production, the arrangement that seeks to accommodate to the intricacy of chip making process and the rapidity of technology change. The rapidity of technology change in semiconductor manufacturing, frequently couched in terms of the so-called ‘Moore's Law,' maintains at a speed that the number of transistors that can be put on an integrated circuit doubles every one to two years. The indistinguishability between laboratory and factory, however, makes the allocation of the machine time—both for research and for production purposes—a prominent factor that shapes the temporal order of work in semiconductor fabs. This paper analyzes the temporal order of technicians' as well as engineers' work. Technicians are exempted from handling problems that arise in the production process, and their work is characterized by short, successive tasks in a predictable sequence—a ‘monochronic' order. In contrast, due to the complexity of semiconductor manufacturing, engineers face problems that arise randomly, and are forced to undertake several tasks which last for various lengths of time simultaneously—their work is in a ‘polychronic' order. With the machine time monopolized by the production department, difficulty in gaining access to the machine time for experimentation, the basis for both problem-solving and research work, contributes further to the polychronicity of engineers' work. In semiconductor fabs, miniaturization trend dictates the way machine time is allocated, which in turn leads to the long working hours of engineers.

关键词 半导体产业、半导体晶圆厂、劳动过程、时间秩序、Semiconductor Industry,Semiconductor FabsLabor ProcessTemporal Order