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后工业社会的失业风险调控:台湾因应金融危机的就业政策与治理困境分析

篇名 后工业社会的失业风险调控:台湾因应金融危机的就业政策与治理困境分析
英文篇名 Unemployment Risks Regulation in Post-industrial Society: An Analysis of Employment Policies and Governance Dilemma in Response to Financial Crisis in Taiwan
作者 李健鸿
刊名 政大劳动学报
期数 201212(28)
出版单位 国立政治大学劳工研究所
起讫页 87-155
摘要

本文从「新社会风险」观点分析台湾为因应金融危机而在2008年至2012年实施的就业政策与治理困境。探讨议题为:台湾自1999年以后建构形成的「后工业社会」时期的就业政策体系,是否能够有效因应金融危机引发的大量失业风险与长期失业风险?台湾在「后工业社会」形成的就业政策体系脉络下,为因应金融危机引发大量失业与长期失业风险所实施的就业政策措施,面临的治理困境为何?研究发现,台湾的就业安全体系,面对金融危机引发失业风险所暴露出的治理困境是:政府虽然采取了强化「积极促进」政策途径的失业风险调控策略,但是以就业保险制度为核心所建构的就业政策体系,回应金融危机引发失业风险的治理能力却明显不足,难以有效提供多数失业者所需要的「所得安全」基本保障,同时也无法提供多数失业者所需要的就业促进政策措施,因此政府才会依循过去失业危机时期的路径依赖,实施各项「非制度性」的短期积极性劳动市场政策方案,企图弥补就业安全体系的破漏,以因应失业风险问题,可是这些短期劳动市场政策方案的实际成效,至2012年执行结束时,虽然使失业率有所下降,但是整体的失业人数与长期失业人数仍相对然多馀金融危机出奇的人数,显示「非制度性」的端其积极性劳动市场政策方案也面临着治理的限制。

英文摘要

This article aim to explore the employment policies and governance dilemma from the 'New Social Policies Approach', in response to financial crisis since 2008 to 2012 in Taiwan. The issues include: whether the employment policies system in postindustrial society had been constructed since 1997 was able to cope with the risk of massive unemployment risk and long-term unemployment risk triggered by the financial crisis? What the employment policies system had been faced governance dilemma in response to the risk of massive unemployment and the risk of long-term unemployment triggered by the financial crisis? The main findings is that although the government performing unemployment risk regulating strategies according to activation governance principle, but governance capacity of employment insurance institutions as the core of employment policies system is obviously insufficient, it is difficult to effectively provide basic income security and employment promotion measures for most unemployed in response to the unemployment risk caused by financial crisis, bringing forth the government 'path dependence' of 'non-institutional' short-term active labor market policy programs in an attempt to compensate for the leaking of employment safety net to cope with high risk of unemployment problem. In fact, the actual effectiveness of these 'non-institutional' short-term labor market policy programs is limited until 2012, although the decline in the unemployment rate, but the overall numbers of unemployed and the numbers of long-term unemployed is still higher than the numbers of the early financial crisis , there is a clear governance restrictions that 'non-institutional' short-term active labor market policy programs.

关键词 新社会风险、就业政策、后工业社会、失业风险调控、积极促进、New Social RisksEmployment PoliciesNew Social PoliciesPost-industrial SocietyUnemployment Risk RegulationActivation